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EWG's Guide to Bug Repellents


July 17, 2013

EWG's Guide to Bug Repellents: References

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Abdel-Rahman A, Shetty AK, Abou-Donia MB. 2001. Subchronic Dermal Application of N,N-Diethyl m-Toluamide (DEET) and Permethrin to Adult Rats, Alone or in Combination, Causes Diffuse Neuronal Cell Death and Cytoskeletal Abnormalities in the Cerebral Cortex and the Hippocampus, and Purkinje Neuron Loss in the Cerebellum. Experimental Neurology. 172, 153-171.

American Academy of Pediatrics. 2005. A Parent's Guide to Insect Repellents.

ASTDR. 2004. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide) Chemical Technical Summary for Public Health and Public Safety Professionals Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Atlanta, Georgia. December 6, 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/consultations/deet/health-effects.html

Badolo A, Ilbodo-Sanogo E, Ouédraogo AP, Costantini C. 2004. Evaluation of the sensitivity of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes to two insect repellents: DEET and KBR 3023. Trop. Med. & Int. Health. 9(3), 330-334.

Barnard DR, Xue RD. 2004. Laboratory Evaluation of Mosquito Repellents Against Aedes albopictus, Culex nigripalpus, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2004 Jul;41(4):726-30.

Bissinger BW, Roe RM. 2009.  Tick Repellents: Past, present, and future. Pesticide BioChem  Phys. 96 63-69.

Briassoulis G, Narlioglou M, Hatzis T. 2001. Toxic encephalopathy associated with use of DEET insect repellents: a case analysis of its toxicity in children. Hum Exp Toxicol. 20(1), 8-14.

Canada. 2012. Healthy Living, Insect Repellents. It's Your Health. Health Canada, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/life-vie/insect-eng.php Updated: August 2012

Carroll JF, Klun JA, Dubboun M. 2005. Repellency of deet and SS220 applied to skin involves olfactory sensing by two species of ticks. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 19, 101-106.

Carroll JF, Benante JP, Kramer M, Lohmeyer KH, Lawrence K 2010. Formulations of deet, Picaridin, and IR3535 applied to skin repel nymphs of the lone star tick (Acari: Ixodidae) for 12 hours. J Med Entomol. 7(4), 699-704.

CDC. 2010. CDC: Tickborne Disease of the U.S. http://www.cdc.gov/ticks/diseases/

CDC. 2011. Center for Disease Control. Reported Cases of Lyme Disease – United States 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/stats/maps/interactiveMaps.html

CDC. 2012A. Lyme Disease. Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/

CDC. 2012B. CDC Telebriefing on West Nile Virus Update. August 29, 2012. http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2012/t0829_west_nile_update.html

CDC. 2012C. Lyme Disease Statistics. Center for Disease Control. Accessed May 22, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/stats/index.html.

CDC. 2013A. Lyme Disease Data. Accessed May 21, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/stats/index.html

CDC. 2013B. Lyme Disease: A Public Information Guide.  Accessed May 21, 2013.  http://www.cdc.gov/lyme/resources/brochure/508_LD_Brochure.pdf

CDC. 2013C. West Nile Virus. Updated May 15, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm

CDC. 2013D. Avoid Bug Bites. Updated May 1, 2013.  http://wwwc.cdc.gov/travel/page/avoid-bug-bites

CDC 2013E. 2012 West Nile Virus Human Infections in the United States. Updated May 8, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/surv&controlCaseCount12_detailed.htm

CDC. 2013F. FAQ: Insect Repellent Use & Safety. Updated June 7, 2013. http://www.cdc.gov/westnile/faq/repellent.html

Corbel V, Stankiewicz M, Pennetier C, Fournier D, Stojan J, et al. (2009) Evidence for inhibition of cholinesterases in insect and mammalian nervous systems by the insect repellent deet. BMC Biol 5, 7: 47.

Consumer Reports. 2010. Best Insect Repellents.

Debboun M, Frances S, Strickman D. 2007. Insect Repellents: Principles, Methods and Uses. CRC Press. 2007.

EPA. 1998. Reregistration Eligibility Decision for DEET.  Environmental Protection Agency, EPA738-R-98-010, September 1998. http://www.epa.gov/oppsrrd1/REDs/0002red.pdf

EPA. 1999. 3-[N-Butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester (113509) Techical Document. Available: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/registration/related_PC-113509_1-Feb-99.pdf

EPA. 2005. New Pesticide Fact Sheet Picaridin. Available: http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/chem_search/reg_actions/registration/fs_PC-070705_01-May-05.pdf

EPA. 2009. Reregistration Eligibility Descision (RED) for Permethrin. Revised May 2009. http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/reregistration/REDs/permethrin-red-revised-may2009.pdf

EPA. 2012. Clothing Factory-Treated with Permethrin. http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/factsheets/factory-treated-clothing.html Updated October 1, 2012.

EPA. 2013. Insect Repellents: Use and Effectiveness. Environmental Protection Agency. http://cfpub.epa.gov/oppref/insect/ Updated April 10, 2013.

ExOfficio. 2013. BugsAway Clothing. Avalabile http://www.exofficio.com/search/bugsaway Accessed: June 18, 2013.

Manikkam M, Tracey R, Guerrero-Bosagna C, Skinner MK. 2012. Pesticide and insect repellent mixture (permethrin and DEET) induces epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and sperm epimutations. Reprod Toxicol. Dec;34(4):708-19.

Merck. 2013. Merck KGaA. EMD CHEMICALS PERFORMANCE MATERIALS. IR3535 Compatibility and Formulations. http://www.emd-performance-materials.com/en/cosmetics/dermacosmetics/ir3535_compatibility_and_formulations/ir3535_compatibility_and_formulations.html

Miller NJ, Rainone EE, Dyer MC, Gonzalez ML, Mather TN. 2011. Tick Bite ProtectionWith Permethrin-Treated Summer-Weight Clothing.  J. Med. Entomol. 48(2): 327‹333

NY 2002. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Re: Registration of the Formulated Product Repel Lemon Eucalyptus (EPA Reg. No. 305-56) and the Manufacturing Use Product (MUP) (Reg. No. 305-59) Containing the New ActiveIngredient Citriodiol. May 16, 2002.

SCCS. 2003. Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety

SCCS. 2011. Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety Opinion on Fragrance allergens in cosmetic products. Available: http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_073.pdf

Schutze GE, Fischer M. 2013. Repellents part of arsenal in war against insects. AAP News. June 2013.

Stanford, K. 2005. Tick Bite Prevention & The Use of Insect Repellents. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station.

Syed Z, Leal WS. 2008. Mosquitoes smell and avoid the insect repellent DEET. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA. 105: 13598 – 603 (PDF)

Vaughn MF, Meshnick SR. 2011. Pilot Study Assessing the Effectiveness of Long-Lasting Permethrin-Impregnated Clothing for the Prevention of Tick Bites. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. July 2011, 11(7): 869-875.

World Health Organization 2012. International Travel and Health 2012 Edition. http://www.who.int/ith/en/