Chromium-6 in U.S. Tap Water: References
ACC (American Chemistry Council). 2010. Letter to the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. June 17, 2010.
AWWARF (American Water Works Association Research Foundation, now the Water Research Foundation). 2004. Occurrence Survey of Boron and Hexavalent Chromium.
Anderson SA, Valentine JL, Fernando R, Sparacino CM, Collins B. 2002. Chromium accumulation in the tissues of rats, mice and guinea pigs exposed to sodium dichromate dihydrate in drinking water for twenty-one days. Toxicol Sci 66(Suppl 1): 138.
Beaumont JJ, Sedman RM, Reynolds SD, Sherman CD, Li LH, Howd RA, et al. 2008. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Epidemiology 19(1): 12-23.
Borneff J, Engelhardt K, Griem W, Kunte H, Reichert J. 1968. [Carcinogens in water and soil. XXII. Mouse drinking water experiments with 3,4-benzopyrene and potassium chromate]. Arch Hyg Bakteriol 152(1): 45-53.
Brandt-Rauf P. 2006. Editorial retraction. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in water. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 48(7): 749.
CDPH (California Department of Public Health). 2009. Chromium-6 in Drinking Water Sources: Sampling Results. California Department of Public Health, Sacramento, CA. February 17, 2009. Available at:www.cdph.ca.gov/certlic/drinkingwater/Pages/Chromium6sampling.aspx.
Costa M. 1997. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) in animal models and humans. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 27(5): 431-442.
Donaldson RM, Jr., Barreras RF. 1966. Intestinal absorption of trace quantities of chromium. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 68(3): 484-493.
Donohue JM, Lipscomb JC. 2002. Health advisory values for drinking water contaminants and the methodology for determining acute exposure values. Sci Total Environ 288(1-2): 43-9.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Hazard summary for chromium compounds. Available at:www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/chromium.html.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2003. Six-Year Review 1 of Drinking Water Standards. EPA 815-F-03-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water. July 2003. Available at:www.epa.gov/safewater/review/first_review.html.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2009. Six-Year Review 2 Health Effects Assessment: Summary Report. EPA 822-R-09-006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water. October 2009. Available at:www.epa.gov/safewater/review/second_review.html.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2010a. Toxicological Review of Hexavalent Chromium (CAS No. 18540-29-9) (External Review Draft). EPA/635/R-10/004A. September 2010. Available at:oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimscomm.getfile?p_download_id=498712.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2010b. Drinking Water Contaminants. Available at:www.epa.gov/safewater/contaminants/index.html.
EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2005. Chrome-Plated Fraud: How PG&E's scientists-for-hire reversed findings of cancer study. Available at: www.ewg.org/erinbrockovichchromium6lawsuit/.
EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2006. Letter to JOEM. Available at: www.ewg.org/node/21952.
EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2009. EWG’s Drinking Water Quality Analysis and Tap Water Database. Available at: http://www.ewg.org/tap-water/home.
Finley BL, Kerger BD, Katona MW, Gargas ML, Corbett GC, Paustenbach DJ. 1997. Human ingestion of chromium (VI) in drinking water: pharmacokinetics following repeated exposure. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 142(1): 151-159.
Gwiazda R. 2008. Review of the document “Public Health Goal for hexavalent chromium in drinking water” Prepared by the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) of the California Environmental Protection Agency in January 2008: Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology Branch, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency. Available at:www.oehha.org/water/phg/pdf/Cr_Gwiazda090909.pdf.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1990. Chromium and chromium compounds. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 49:49-214.
Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ, Corbett GE, Finley BL. 1996. Absorption and elimination of trivalent and hexavalent chromium in humans following ingestion of a bolus dose in drinking water. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 141(1): 145-158.
Lai H, McNeill LS. 2006. Chromium redox chemistry in drinking water systems. J Environ Eng 132(8): 842-851.
McCarroll N, Keshava N, Chen J, Akerman G, Kligerman A, Rinde E. 2010. An evaluation of the mode of action framework for mutagenic carcinogens case study II: chromium (VI). Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 51(2): 89-111.
NAS (National Academy of Sciences). 1993. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
NRC (National Research Council). 2008. Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Task Ahead. Available at: www.nap.edu/catalog/12528.html
NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2007. Actions on Draft NTP Technical Reports Reviewed by the NTP Board of Scientific Counselors Technical Reports Review Subcommittee, May 16-17, 2007, Minutes available at:ntp.niehs.nih.gov/files/TRRS_MIns_May_2007_bs8rgMW1.pdf.
NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2008. NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Sodium Dichromate Dihydrate (CAS No. 7789-12-0) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Drinking Water Studies). NTP TR 546, NIH Publication No. 07-5887: National Toxicology Program, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Available at: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/files/546_web_FINAL.pdf.
OEHHA (Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment). 2009. Draft Public Health Goal for Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water: Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology Branch, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency. Available at:www.oehha.ca.gov/water/phg/pdf/Cr6PHGdraft082009.pdf.
OEHHA (Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment). 2010. Peer Review Comments regarding 2001 Draft Public Health Goal for Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water. Available at:www.oehha.ca.gov/water/phg/chrom092010.html.
USGS (United States Geological Survey). Mineral Commodity Summaries: Chromium. January 2010.
Zhang JD, Li S. 1997. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in water. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 39(4): 315-319.
Zhang JD, Li XL. 1987. [Chromium pollution of soil and water in Jinzhou]. Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine] 21(5): 262-264.