Sign up to receive email updates, action alerts & health tips from EWG. [Privacy]

References

Dog Food Comparison Shows High Fluoride Levels: References

June 26, 2009

ADA (American Dental Association). 2006. Interim Guidance on Fluoride Intake for Infants and Young Children. Nov. 8, 2006. Available: www.ada.org/prof/resources/positions/statements/fluoride_infants.asp [accessed June 15, 2009].

Adair SM, Bowen WH, Burt BA, Kumar JV, Levy SM, Pendrys DG, et al. 2001. Fluoride Recommendations Work Group. Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 50(RR14): 1-42.

Akano A, Bickler SW. 2003. Pineal gland calcification in sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Radiol 58(4): 336-7.

Aoba T, Fejerskov O. 2002. Dental fluorosis: chemistry and biology. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 13(2): 155-70.

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2003. Toxicological pofile for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA. September 2003.

Bassin EB, Wypij D, Davis RB, Mittleman MA. 2006. Age-specific Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water and Osteosarcoma (United States). Cancer Causes and Control 17(4): 421-8.

Bhatnagar M, Rao P, Sushma J, Bhatnagar R. 2002. Neurotoxicity of fluoride: neurodegeneration in hippocampus of female mice. Indian J Exp Biol 40(5): 546-54.

Bratthall D, Hansel-Petersson G, Sundberg H. 1996. Reasons for the caries decline: what do the experts believe? Eur J Oral Sci 104(4 ( Pt 2)): 416-22; discussion 23-5, 30-2.

Brunelle JA. 1987. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in U.S. children. J Dent Res 68: 995.

Buzalaf MA, de Almeida BS, Cardoso VE, Olympio KP, Furlani Tde A.

Total and acid-soluble fluoride content of infant cereals, beverages and biscuits from Brazil. Food Addit Contam. 2004 Mar;21(3):210-5.

CDC. 2006. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Water Fluoridation Statistics for 2006. Available: http://www.cdc.gov/FLUORIDATION/statistics/2006stats.htm [accessed June 11 2009].

CDC. 2008. Populations receiving optimally fluoridated public drinking water--United States, 1992-2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 57(27): 737-41.

Chouhan S, Flora SJ. 2008. Effects of fluoride on the tissue oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats: biochemical assays supported by IR spectroscopy data. Toxicology 254(1-2): 61-7.

Chun R, de Lorimier LP. 2003. Update on the biology and management of canine osteosarcoma. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 33(3): 491-516.

Cohn PD. 1992. A Brief Report On The Association Of Drinking Water Fluoridation And The Incidence of Osteosarcoma Among Young Males. An epidemiologic report on drinking water and fluoridation. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy and the New Jersey Department of Health, Trenton, NJ.

Cooley DM, Waters DJ. 1997. Skeletal neoplasms of small dogs: a retrospective study and literature review. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 33(1): 11-23.

Dernell WS, Straw RC, Withrow SJ. 2001. Tumors of the skeletal system. In: Small Animal Clinical Oncology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 378-417.

DHHS. 1991. Department of Health and Human Services. Review of Fluoride – Benefits and Risks, Report of the Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Fluoride of the Committee to Coordinate Environmental Health and Related Programs, Public Health Service. February 1991. See: Appendix F: Time trends for bone and joint cancers and osteosarcomas in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2007. EPA Office of Water. Ground Water and Drinking Water. Drinking Water Contaminants. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/hfacts.html.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1989. Fluorine (Soluble Fluoride (CASRN 7782-41-4). Integrated Risk Information System. Available: http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0053.htm.

FDA CVM. 2007. FDA's Regulation of Pet Food. Available: http://www.fda.gov/cvm/petfoodflier.html [accessed March 17 2008].

Featherstone JD. 1999. Prevention and reversal of dental caries: role of low level fluoride. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 27(1): 31-40.

Featherstone JD. 2000. The science and practice of caries prevention. J Am Dent Assoc 131(7): 887-99.

Fein NJ, Cerklewski FL. 2001. Fluoride content of foods made with mechanically separated chicken. J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Sep;49(9):4284-6.

Fejerskov O, Larsen MJ, Richards A, Baelum V. 1994. Dental tissue effects of fluoride. Adv Dent Res 8(1): 15-31.

Fejerskov O. 2004. Changing paradigms in concepts on dental caries: consequences for oral health care. Caries Res 38(3): 182-91.

Galletti PM, Joyet G, Jallut O. 1957. Effect of sodium fluoride on thyroid function in Basedow's disease. [article in French]. Helv Med Acta 24(3): 209-15.

Gedalia I, N. B. 1963. The relationship of fluoride and iodine in drinking water in the occurrence of goiter. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 142(April1): 312-15.

Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ. 2006. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Lancet 368(9553): 2167-78.

Gruber HE, Baylink DJ. 1991. The effects of fluoride on bone. Clin Orthop Relat Res(267): 264-77.

Heilman JR, Kiritsy MC, Levy SM, Wefel JS. 1997. Fluoride concentrations of infant foods. J Am Dent Assoc. 1997 Jul;128(7):857-63.

Heller KE, Eklund SA, Burt BA. 1997. Dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying water fluoride concentrations. J Public Health Dent 57(3): 136-43.

Hellwig E, Lennon AM. 2004. Systemic versus topical fluoride. Caries Res 38(3): 258-62.

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1997. Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, and fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Ismail AI, Hasson H. 2008. Fluoride supplements, dental caries and fluorosis: a systematic review. J Am Dent Assoc 139(11): 1457-68.

Jackson RD, Brizendine EJ, Kelly SA, Hinesley R, Stookey GK, Dunipace AJ. 2002. The fluoride content of foods and beverages from negligibly and optimally fluoridated communities. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 30(5): 382-91.

Khan A, Moola MH, Cleaton-Jones P. 2005. Global trends in dental fluorosis from 1980 to 2000: a systematic review. Sadj 60(10): 418-21.

Kleerekoper M. 1996. Fluoride and the skeleton. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 33(2): 139-61.

Kumar JV, Moss ME. 2008. Fluorides in dental public health programs. Dent Clin North Am 52(2): 387-401, vii.

Kunz D, Schmitz S, Mahlberg R, Mohr A, Stoter C, Wolf KJ, et al. 1999. A new concept for melatonin deficit: on pineal calcification and melatonin excretion. Neuropsychopharmacology 21(6): 765-72.

Li L. 2003. The biochemistry and physiology of metallic fluoride: action, mechanism, and implications. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 14(2): 100-14.

Litzka G. 1937. Die experimentellen Grundlagen der Behandlung des Morbus Basedow und der Hyperthyreose mittels Fluortyrosin. Med. Wochenschr. 63:1037–1040.

Luke J. 1997. The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Surrey, Guildford. 278 pp.

Luke J. 2001. Fluoride deposition in the aged human pineal gland. Caries Res 35(2): 125-8.

Mahlberg R, Kienast T, Hadel S, Heidenreich JO, Schmitz S, Kunz D. 2009. Degree of pineal calcification (DOC) is associated with polysomnographic sleep measures in primary insomnia patients. Sleep Med 10(4): 439-45.

Marinho VC. 2008. Evidence-based effectiveness of topical fluorides. Adv Dent Res 20(1): 3-7.

Maumene E. 1854. Experience pour determiner l'action des fluores sur l'economie animale. Compt Rend Acad Sci Paris 39: 538.

Maurer JK, Cheng MC, Boysen BG, Anderson RL. 1990. Two-year carcinogenicity study of sodium fluoride in rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 82(13): 1118-26.

Maurer JK, Cheng MC, Boysen BG, Squire RA, Strandberg JD, Weisbrode SE, et al. 1993. Confounded carcinogenicity study of sodium fluoride in CD-1 mice. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 18(2): 154-68.

Misdorp W, Hart AA. 1979. Some prognostic and epidemiologic factors in canine osteosarcoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 62(3): 537-45.

Mueller F, Fuchs B, Kaser-Hotz B. 2007. Comparative biology of human and canine osteosarcoma. Anticancer Res 27(1A): 155-64.

NRC (National Research Council). 2006. Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. [Available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11571.html]

NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Recommended dietary allowances. 10th Ed. Washington, DC. National Academy Press.

NTP. 1990. National Toxicology Program. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Sodium Fluoride in F344/N Rats and B6C3f1 Mice. Technical report Series No. 393. NIH Publ. No 91-2848. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, N.C.

Pizzo G, Piscopo MR, Pizzo I, Giuliana G. 2007. Community water fluoridation and caries prevention: a critical review. Clin Oral Investig 11(3): 189-93.

Priester WA, McKay FW. 1980. The occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr(54): 1-210.

Rodrigues MH, Leite AL, Arana A, Villena RS, Forte FD, Sampaio FC, et al. 2009. Dietary fluoride intake by children receiving different sources of systemic fluoride. J Dent Res 88(2): 142-5.

Ru G, Terracini B, Glickman LT. 1998. Host related risk factors for canine osteosarcoma. Vet J 156(1): 31-9.

Sandhu R, Lal H, Kundu ZS, Kharb S. 2009. Serum Fluoride and Sialic Acid Levels in Osteosarcoma. Biol Trace Elem Res: in press.

Seraj B, Shahrabi M, Falahzadeh M, Falahzadeh F, Akhondi N. 2006. Effect of high fluoride concentration in drinking water on children’s intelligence. Journal of Dental Medicine (Tehran University of Medical Sciences) [article in Persian] 19(2): 80-86.

Shivarajashankara YM, Shivashankara AR, Bhat PG, Rao SM, Rao SH. 2002. Histological changes in the brain of young fluoride-intoxicated rats. Fluoride 35(1): 12-21.

Sohn W, Noh H, Burt BA. 2009. Fluoride Ingestion Is Related to Fluid Consumption Patterns. J Public Health Dent: in press.

Tang QQ, Du J, Ma HH, Jiang SJ, Zhou XJ. 2008. Fluoride and children's intelligence: a meta-analysis. Biol Trace Elem Res 126(1-3): 115-20.

Trivedi MH, Verma RJ, Chinoy NJ, Patel RS, Sathawara NG. 2007. Effect of high fluoride water on intelligence of school children in India. Fluoride 40(3): 178-83.

Varner JA, Jensen KF, Horvath W, Isaacson RL. 1998. Chronic administration of aluminum-fluoride or sodium-fluoride to rats in drinking water: alterations in neuronal and cerebrovascular integrity. Brain Res 784(1-2): 284-98.

Weyant RJ. 2004. Seven systematic reviews confirm topical fluoride therapy is effective in preventing dental caries. J Evid Dent Base Pract 3: 129-35.

Whitford GM. 1996. The metabolism and toxicity of fluoride. Monogr Oral Sci 16 Rev 2: 1-153.

Withrow SJ, Powers BE, Straw RC, Wilkins RM. 1991. Comparative aspects of osteosarcoma. Dog versus man. Clin Orthop Relat Res(270): 159-68.

Zhang M, Wang A, He W, He P, Xu B, Xia T, et al. 2007. Effects of fluoride on the expression of NCAM, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Toxicology 236(3): 208-16.

Zhang M, Wang A, Xia T, He P. 2008. Effects of fluoride on DNA damage, S-phase cell-cycle arrest and the expression of NF-kappaB in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Toxicol Lett 179(1): 1-5.

Zimmer S, Jahn KR, Barthel CR. 2003. Recommendations for the use of fluoride in caries prevention. Oral Health Prev Dent 1(1): 45-51.