Reports & Consumer Guides
Nurses' Health: References
AACN (American Association of Colleges of Nurses). 2007. Nursing Shortage. http://www.aacn.nche.edu/Media/FactSheets/NursingShortage.htm. Accessed April 13, 2007.
ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). 1986. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 5th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH: p. 256.
Adolfsson-Erici M, Peterson M, Parkkonen J, Sturve J. 2002. Triclosan, a commonly used bactericide found in human milk and in the aquatic environment in Sweden. Chemosphere 46 (9-10)1485-1489.
American Thoracic Society. 2003. Occupational contribution to the burden of airway disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167:787-797.
ANA (American Nurses Association). 2006. Nursing Facts: Nursing Shortage. http://nursingworld.org/readroom/fsshortage.htm. Accessed April 13, 2007.
ANA (American Nurses Association). 2007. Environmental Health: Important Choices for a Greener World. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing (OJIN). www.nursingworld.org
Andersen S. R. 1984. Experimentally produced skin reactions to ethylene oxide. Potential Health Effects, Regulatory Initiatives, Safe Use, AAMI Technology Assessment Report No. 8-84: 21-22.
ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists - Ad Hoc Committee on the Effect of Trace Anesthetics on the Health of Operating Room Personnel). 1974. Occupational disease among operating room personnel: a national study. Anesthesiology 41:321-340.
Ashkin SP. 2004. Green Cleaning in Hospitals: Cleaning to protect health without harming the environment. CleanMed Conference, April 15, 2004. http://www.cleanmed.org/2004/downloads.html. Accessed August 29, 2006.
Axelsson G and Rylander R. 1982. Exposure to anaesthetic gases and spontaneous abortion: Response bias in a postal questionnaire study. International Journal of Epidemiology 11:250-256.
Balmer ME, Poiger T, Droz C, Romanin K, Bergqvist PA, Muller MD, Buser HR. 2004. Occurrence of methyl triclosan, a transformation product of the bactericide triclosan, in fish from various lakes in Switzerland. Environmental Science and Technology 38(2)390-395.
Bandman AL, et al. 1994. Hazardous substances, halogen and oxygen containing substances. Chimia 48:404.
Barbosa L, Leal I, Timóteo AT, Matias T. 2000. Acute megaloblastic anemia caused by inhalation of nitrous oxide in a patient with multiple autoimmune pathology. Acta Medica Portuguesa 13: 309-12.[Portuguese]
Barry MA, Craven DE, Goularte TA, Lichtenberg DA. 1984. Serratia marcescens contamination of antiseptic soap containing triclosan: implications for nosocomial infection. Infect Control 5:427-30.
BASF. 1990. Regarding submission of data on glutardialdehyde with attachments (English and German). TSCA 8E, OTS0526410-1. Document 89-910000106. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Basford AB, Fink BR. 1968. The teratogenicity of halothane in the rat. Anesthesiology 29:1167-1173.
Baur X, Ammon J, Chen Z, Beckman U, Czuppon AB. 1993. Health risk in hospitals through airborne allergens for patients pre-sensitized to latex. The Lancet 342:1148-1149.
Behrens VJ, Brackbill RM. 1993. Worker awareness of exposure: industries and occupations with low awareness. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 23:695-701.
Berger JJ, Modell JH, Sypert GW. 1988. Megaloblastic anemia and brief exposure to nitrous oxide--a causal relationship. Anesthesia and Analgesia 67:197-198.
Bhargava H, Leonard P. 1996. Triclosan: applications and safety. American Journal of Infection Control 24(3):209-218.
Bisanti L, Maggini M, Raschetti R, Alegiani SS, Ippolito FM, Caffari B, Segnan N, Ponti A. 1993. Cancer mortality in ethylene oxide workers. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 50:317-324.
Bittner AC Jr., Echeverria D, Woods JS, Aposhian HV, Naleway C, Martin MD, Mahurin RK, Heyer NJ, Cianciola M. 1998. Behavior effects of low-level exposure to Hg0 among dental professionals: A cross-study evaluation of psychomotor effects. Neurotoxicol and Teratol 20: 429-439.
Bourguignon MH, et al. 2005. Genetic and epigenetic features in radiation sensitivity. Part II: implications for clinical practice and radiation protection. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 32:351-368.
Bousquet J, Flahault A, Vandenplas O, Ameille J, Duron J-J, Pecquet C, Chevrie K, Annesi-Maesano I. 2006. Natural rubber latex allergy among health care workers: A systematic review of the evidence. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 118: 447-454.
Boyce JM, Kelliher S, Vallande N. 2000. Skin irritation and dryness associated with two hand-hygiene regimens: soap-and-water handwashing versus hand antisepsis with an alcoholic hand gel. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 21:442-8.
Brashear A, Unverzagt FW, Farber MO, Bonnin JM, Garcia JG, Grober E. 1996. Ethylene oxide neurotoxicity: a cluster of 12 nurses with peripheral and central nervous system toxicity. Neurology 46:992-998.
BRER (Board of Radiation Effects Research). 2006. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu/books/030909156X/html. Accessed October 2, 2006.
Burgaz S, et al. 1999. Urinary cyclophosphamide excretion and micronuclei frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes and in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of nurses handling antineoplastics. Mutation Research 439:97-104.
CADHS (California Department of Health Services). 2000. A Guide to Mercury Assessment and Elimination in Healthcare Facilities. P. 1-4.
Caraffini S, Ricci F, Assalve D & Lisi P. 1998. Isoflurane: an uncommon cause of occupational airborne contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 38:286.
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2002. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 51(RR-16):1-45.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 2006. 21 CFR 250.250 Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/
CFRSearch.cfm?fr=250.250. Accessed January 25, 2007.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 1994. 29 CFR 1910.132 General requirements. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= STANDARDS&p_id=9777 Accessed August 25, 2006.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 1996. 29 CFR 1910.1096 Ionizing radiation. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= STANDARDS&p_id=10098 Accessed August 25, 2006.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 1996. 29 CFR 1910.1200 Hazard communication. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= STANDARDS&p_id=10099 Accessed August 25, 2006.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 1996. 29 CFR 1910.1200 Hazard Communication. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= STANDARDS&p_id=10099 Accessed August 29, 2006.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 1998. 10 CFR 20.1208 Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/cfr/part020/part020-1208.html Accessed October 2, 2006.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 1998. 29 CFR 1910.151(c) Medical services and first aid. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= STANDARDS&p_id= 9806#1910.151(c) Accessed August 29, 2006.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 2006. 29 CFR 1910.1047 Ethylene oxide. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= STANDARDS&p_id=10070 Accessed August 25, 2006.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 2006. 29 CFR 1910 Subpart I Personal protective equipment. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= STANDARDS&p_id=10118 Accessed August 25, 2006.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 2006. 29 CFR 1910.134 Respiratory protection. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= STANDARDS&p_id=12716 Accessed August 25, 2006.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 2006. 29 CFR 1910.1030(d)(3)(iii) Bloodborne pathogens: Accessibility. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= STANDARDS&p_id=10051#1910.1030(d)(3)(iii). Accessed August 25, 2006.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 2006. 29 CFR 1910.1000 Air contaminants. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= STANDARDS&p_id=9991. Accessed August 25, 2006.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 2006. 29 CFR 1910.1018 Inorganic arsenic. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= STANDARDS&p_id=10023Accessed October 5, 2006.
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations). 2006. 29 CFR 1910.1030(d)(3)(iii) Bloodborne pathogens. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= STANDARDS&p_id=10051#1910.1030(d)(3)(iii). Accessed September 25, 2006.
Chang LW, Dudley AW Jr, Katz J. 1976. Pathological changes in the nervous system following in utero exposure to halothane. Environmental Research 11:40-51.
Chang LW, Dudley AW Jr, Lee YK, Katz J. 1975. Ultrastructural studies on the pathological change in the neonatal kidney following in utero exposure to halothane. Environmental Research 10:174-189.
Chan-Yeung M, McMurren T, Catonio-Begley F, Lam S. 1993. Occupational asthma in a technologist exposed to glutaraldehyde. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 91:974-8.
Chuanchuen R, Beinlich K, Hoang TT, et al. 2001. Cross-resistance between triclosan and antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mediated by multidrug efflux pumps: exposure of a susceptible mutant strain to triclosan selects nfxB mutants overexpressing MexCD-OprJ. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:428-32.
Clayton, G. D. and F. E. Clayton (eds.). 1981-1982. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology: Volume 2A, 2B, 2C: Toxicology. 3rd ed. John Wiley Sons, New York: p. 2167
Cohen EN, Bellville JW, and Brown BW, Jr. 1971. Anesthesia, Pregnancy and Miscarriage. A Study of Operating Room Nurses and Anesthetists. Anesthesiology 35:343-347.
Cohen EN, Brown BW, Jr., Bruce DL, Cascorbi HF, Corbett TH, Jones TW, Whitcher CE. 1975. A survey of anesthetic health hazards among dentists. Journal of the American Dental Association 90:1291-1296.
Cohen EN, Brown BW, Wu ML, Whitcher CE, Brodsky JB, Gift HC, Greenfield W, Jones TW, Driscoll EJ. 1980. Occupational disease in dentistry and chronic exposure to trace anesthetic gases. Journal of the American Dental Association 101:21-31.
Cohen NL, Patton CM. 2006. Worker safety and glutaraldehyde in the gastrointestinal lab environment. Gastroenterol Nurs 29:100-4.
Cohen NL. Personal communication. August 9 2006.
Colburn T, Dumanoski D, Myers JP. 1997. Our Stolen Future: How we are threatening our fertility, intelligence, and survival - A scientific detective story. Plume/Penguin Books.
Connor TH, Anderson RW, Sessink PJ, Broadfield L, Power LA. 1999. Surface contamination with antineoplastic agents in six cancer treatment centers in Canada and the United States. Am J Health Syst Pharm 56:1427-1432.
Connor TH, McDiarmid MA. 2006. Preventing occupational exposures to antineoplastic drugs in health care settings. CA Cancer J Clin 56:354-365.
Cookson BD, Bolton MC, Platt JH. 1991. Chlorhexidine resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or just an elevated MIC? An in vitro and in vivo assessment. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 35:1997-2002.
Cox R, Muirhead CR, Stather JW, Edwards AA, Little MP. 1995. Risk of radiation-induced cancer at low doses and low dose rates for radiation protection purposes. Documents of the [British] National Radiological Protection Board, Vol. 6, No. 1, p. 71.
Cullinan P, Hayes J, Cannon J, Madan I, Heap D, Taylor AN. 1992. Occupational asthma in radiographers. Lancet 340(8833):l477.
Cusano F, Luciano S, Iannazzone S, Adamo S. 1993. Contact dermatitis from feprazone. Contact Dermatitis 28: 127.
Daughton CG, Ternes TA. 1999. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change. Environmental Health Perspectives 107 (6)907-938.
de Groot AC. 1987. Contact allergy to cosmetics: causative ingredients. Contact Dermatitis 17:26-34.
de Haan P, Meester HHM, Bruynzeel DP. 1996. Irritancy of alcohols [Chapter 6]. In: van der Valk PGM, Maibach HI, eds. The Irritant Contact Dermatitis Syndrome. New York, NY: CRC Press.
Delclos GL, Gimeno D, Arif AA, Burau KD, Carson A, Lusk C, Stock T, Symanski E, Whitehead LW, Zock JP, Benavides FG, Anto JM. 2006. Occupational risk factors and asthma among healthcare professionals. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Advance online publication December 21, 2006.
Delfino RJ. 2002. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: Linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:573-589.
Denton GW. 1991. Chlorhexidine [Chapter 16]. In: Block SS, ed. Disinfection, sterilization and reservation. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger.
Descatha A, et al. 2005. Occupational exposures and haematological malignancies: overview on human recent data. Cancer Causes and Control 16:939-953.
Deschamps D., M. Leport, A. M. Laurent, S. Cordier, B. Festy, and F. Conso. 1990. Toxicity of ethylene oxide on the lens and on leukocytes: an epidemiological study in hospital sterilisation installations. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 47:308-313.
Deschamps D., Rosenberg N., Soler P., Maillard G., Fournier E., Salson D., Gervais P. 1992. Persistent asthma after accidental exposure to ethylene oxide. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 49:523-525.
DHHS (Department of Health & Human Services). 2004. Preliminary Findings: 2004 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Bureau of Health professions, Division of Nursing, Health Resources and Services Administration. http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/rnpopulation/
Dimich-Ward H, Wymer ML, Chan-Yeung M. 2004. Respiratory health survey of respiratory therapists. Chest 126:1048-1053.
Dixon RE, Kaslow RA, Mackel DC, Fulkerson CC, Mallison GF. 1976. Aqueous quaternary ammonium antiseptics and disinfectants: use and misuse. JAMA 236:2415-7.
Doenicke A and Wittmann R. 1975. Teratogenic effect of halothane on the rat fetus. Anesthesie, Analgesie, Reanimation 32:47-51. [French]
Doll R, Wakeford R. 1997. Risk of childhood cancer from foetal irradiation. British Journal of Radiology 70:130--139.
Donner AL. 1978. Possible risk of working with antineoplastic drugs in horizontal laminar flow hoods [letter to the editor]. Am J Hosp Pharm 35:900.
Doody MM, et al. 1998. Mortality among United States radiologic technologists, 1926-90. Cancer Causes and Control 9:67-75.
Dunkelberg, H. 1982. Carcinogenicity of ethylene oxide and 1,2-propylene oxide upon intragastric administration to rats. British Journal of Cancer 46:924-933.
Durovic B, Spasic-Jokic V. 2004. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and the occurrence of cataract. Vojnosanit Pregl. 61:387-390.
DVA (Department of Veterans Affairs). 1986. Pest management operations. In: Environmental Management Service. Chapter 2. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.
Echeverria D, Aposhian HV, Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Aposhian MM, Bittner AC Jr., Mahurin RK, Cianciola M. 1998. Neurobehavioral effects from the exposure to dental amalgam Hg0: New distinctions between recent exposure and Hg body burden. FASEB 12:971-980.
ECRI (Emergency Care Research Institute). 1991. Technology for Anesthesia. 12, No. 4-5:2, cited in OSHA. 2000. Anesthetic Gases: Guidelines for Workplace Exposures. http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/anestheticgases/index.html
Ellenhorn, MJ, Schonwald S, Ordog G, Wasserberger J. Ellenhorn's Medical Toxicology: Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1997., p. 1219.
Ensslin AS, Huber R, Pethran A, Römmelt H, Schierl R, Kulka U, Fruhmann G. 1997. Biological monitoring of hospital pharmacy personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs: urinary excretion and cytogenetics studies. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 70:205-208.
Ensslin AS, Stoll Y, Pethran A, Pfaller A, Römmelt H, Fruhmann G. 1994. Biological monitoring of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in urine of hospital personnel occupationally exposed to cytostatic drugs. Occup Environ Med 51:229-233.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1997. Chemistry assistance manual for premanufacture notification submitters. EPA 744-R-97-003. Available online at http://www.epa.gov/oppt/newchems/chem-pmn/.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Reducing Mercury Use in Healthcare, Promoting a Healthier Environment: A How-To-Manual. Great Lakes Pollution Prevention and Toxics Strategy. http://www.epa.gov/grtlakes/bnsdocs/merchealth/
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Mercury Compounds: Hazard Summary-Created in April 1992; Revised in January 2000. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/hlthef/mercury.html
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2002. Eliminating mercury in hospitals. November 2002. JCAHO Environment of Care standards 1.3, 2.3, 4.0. Available in pdf format at http://www.epa.gov/region09/waste/p2/projects/hospart.html. Accessed November 16, 2006.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2002. Reducing ethylene oxide and glutaraldehyde use. Environmental best practices for health care facilities. November 2002. JCAHO Environment of Care standards 1.3, 2.3, 4.0. Available in pdf format at http://www.epa.gov/region09/waste/p2/projects/hospart.html. Accessed August 2 2006.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment: Supplemental Guidance for Assessing Susceptibility from Early-Life Exposure to Carcinogens. EPA/630/R-03/003F. http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=160003. Accessed February 7, 2007.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2006a. Evaluation of the Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (External Review Draft). EPA/635/R-06/003. http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimscomm.getfile?p_download_id=458625. Accessed November 17, 2006.
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2006b. National Emission Standards for Hospital Ethylene Oxide Sterilizers. Proposed Rule, 40 CFR Part 63. Federal Register 71:64907. November 6, 2006.
Estrin WJ, Bowler RM, Lash A, Becker CE. 1990. Neurotoxicological evaluation of hospital sterilizer workers exposed to ethylene oxide. Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology 28:1-20.
Estrin W. J., S. A. Cavalieri, P. Wald, C. E. Becker, J. R. Jones, and J. E. Cone. 1987. Evidence of neurologic dysfunction related to long-term ethylene oxide exposure. Archives of Neurology 44:1283-6.
EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2003. Body Burden: The Pollution in People. http://www.ewg.org/reports/bodyburden1/
EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2005. Body Burden: The Pollution in Newborns. http://www.ewg.org/reports/bodyburden2/
EWG (Environmental Working Group). 2005. Skin Deep: News about the safety of popular health & beauty brands. http://www.ewg.org/reports/skindeep2/
Faulkner K. 2005. Personnel and patient doses: are there ethical consequences to the use of X-rays? Radiation Protection and Dosimetry 117:30-33.
FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 1995. Medical Device Materials Toxicology: Mercury-Induced Changes in Brain Gene Expression. Center for Devices and Radiological Health. http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/ost/reports/fy95/materials_toxicology.html
FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 1994. Tentative final monograph for healthcare antiseptic drug products; proposed rule. Federal Register 59:31441-52.
Finch TM, Muncaster A, Prais L & Foulds IS. 2000. Occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis from isoflurane vapour. Contact Dermatitis 42:46.
Fink BR, Shepard TH, Blandau RJ. 1967. Teratogenic activity of nitrous oxide. Nature 214:146-148.
Flodin U, Landtblom A-M, Axelson O. 2003. Multiple sclerosis in nurse anaesthetists. Occupational Environmental Medicine 60:66-68.
Foran CM, Bennett ER, Benson WH. 2000. Developmental evaluation of a potential non-steroidal estrogen: triclosan. Marine Environmental Research 50(1-5)153-156
Freedman DM, et al. 2003. Risk of melanoma among radiologic technologists in the United States. International Journal of Cancer 103:556-562.
Friedman MS, Powell KE, Hutwagner L, Graham LM, Teague WG. 2001. Impact of changes in transportation and commuting behaviors during the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta on air quality and childhood asthma. Journal of the American Medical Association. 285:897-905.
Fujinaga M, Baden JM, Suto A, Myatt JK, Mazze RI. 1991. Preventive effects of phenoxybenzamine on nitrous oxide-induced reproductive toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Teratology 43:151-157.
Fukushima T, Abe K, Nakagawa A, Osaki Y, Yoshida N, Yamane Y. 1986. Chronic ethylene oxide poisoning in a factory manufacturing medical appliances. Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine 36:118-123.
GAO (General Accounting Office). 1994. Toxic Substances Control Act: Preliminary Observations on Legislative Changes to Make TSCA More Effective (Testimony, 07/13/94, GAO/T-RCED-94-263).
GAO (General Accounting Office). 2005. Chemical regulation: Options exist to improve EPA's ability to assess health risks and manage its chemical review program. GAO-05-458. June 2005.
Garman R, Snellings W, Maronpot R. 1985. Brain tumors in F344 rats associated with chronic inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Neurotoxicology 6:117-138.
Garvey LH, Roed-Petersen J, and Husum B. 2001. Anaphylactic reactions in anaesthetised patients - four cases of chlorhexidine allergy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 45:1290-4.
Generoso WM, Cumming RB, Bandy JA, Cain KT. 1983. Increased dominant-lethal effects due to prolonged exposure of mice to inhaled ethylene oxide. Mutation Research 119:377-379.
Goldschmidt RH and Dong BJ. 1992. Treatment of AIDS and HIV-related conditions: 1992. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 5:335-350.
Gosling SD, Vazire S, Srivastava S, John OP. 2004. Should we trust web-based studies? A comparative analysis of six preconceptions about internet questionnaires. Am Psychol 59(2):93-104.
Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ. 2006. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals. Lancet. Published online November 8, 2006.
GS (Green Seal). 2004. Floor-care Products: Finishes & Strippers. Choose Green Report, June 2004. http://www.greenseal.org/resources/reports/CGR_floorcare.pdf. Accessed August 29, 2006.
GS (Green Seal). 2006. Green Seal Environmental Standard for General-Purpose, Bathroom, Glass, and Carpet Cleaners Used for Industrial and Institutional Purposes. 3rd Ed. http://www.greenseal.org/certification/standards/gs37.pdf. Accessed August 29, 2006.
Guirguis SS, Pelmear PL, Roy ML & Wong L. 1990. Health effects associated with exposure to anaesthetic gases in Ontario hospital personnel. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 47:490-497.
H2E (Hospitals for a Healthy Environment). 2005. Making Medicine Mercury Free. A 2005 Report on the Status of Virtual Mercury Elimination in the Health Care Sector. http://www.h2e-online.org/pubs/mercuryreport.pdf. Accessed November 16, 2006.
Hall, Ronald M., Elena Page, Dino Mattorano, Kevin Roegner. 1998. Health Hazard Evaluation Report 97-0292-2678. NIOSH. General Electric Bridgeville Glass Plant, Pennsylvania. P. 2-6.
Hamann CP, Rodgers PA, Sullivan K. 2003. Allergic contact dermatitis in dental professions: effective diagnosis and treatment. Journal of the American Dental Association 138:185-194.
Hauptmann M, et al. 2003. Mortality from diseases of the circulatory system in radiologic technologists in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology 157:239-248.
Haut, Marc W., Lisa A. Morrow, David Pool, Ty S. Callahan, Jennifer S. Haut, Michael D. Franzen. 1999. Neurobehavioral Effects of Acute Exposure to Inorganic Mercury Vapor. Applied Neuropsychology. 6 (4): 193-200.
Hayes, Wayland J., Jr. 1982. Pesticides Studied in Man. Baltimore/London: Williams and Wilkins. P. 12.
HCWH (Health Care Without Harm). 2004. Cleaning Chemical Use in Hospitals: Fact Sheet. In: Going Green: A Resource Kit for Pollution Prevention in Health Care. http://www.noharm.org/details.cfm?ID=606&type=document. Accessed August 29, 2006.
HCWH (Health Care Without Harm). 2006. Risks to Asthma Posed by Indoor Health Care Environments: A Guide to Identifying and Reducing Problematic Exposures. http://www.noharm.org/details.cfm?type=document&ID=1315. Accessed September 1, 2006.
HCWH (Health Care without Harm). 2006. Mercury Ordinances/Resolutions. http://www.noharm.org/us/mercury/ordinances. Accessed November 16, 2006.
Heath RJ, Li J, Roland GE. 2000. Inhibition of the Staphylococcus aureus NADPH-dependent enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase by triclosan and hexachlorophene. J Biol Chem 275:4654-9.
Heilman DK, Jones RT, Swanson MC, Yunginger JW. 1996. A prospective, controlled study showing that rubber gloves are the major contributor to latex aeroallergen levels in the operating room. Journal of Allergy Clinical Immunology 98:325-330.
Hemminki K, Kyyrönen P, Lindbohm M-L. 1985. Spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring of nurses exposed to anesthetic gases, cytostatic drugs, and other potential hazards in hospitals, based on registered information of outcome. J Epidemiol Commun Health 39:141-147.
Hemminki K, Mutanen P, Saloniemi I, Niemi ML, Vainio H. 1982. Spontaneous abortions in hospital staff engaged in sterilizing instruments with chemical agents. British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed.) 285:1461-3.
HERC (Healthcare Environmental Resources Center). 2004. Mercury in Healthcare Facilities. http://www.hercenter.org/hazmat/mercury.cfm. Accessed August 16, 2006.
Hogstedt C, Aringer L, Gustavsson A. 1986. Epidemiologic support for ethylene oxide as a cancer-causing agent. Journal of the American Medical Association 255:1575-1578.
Hsueh PR, Teng LJ, Yang PC, Pan HL, Ho SW, Luh KT. 1999. Nosocomial pseudoepidemic caused by Bacillus cereus traced to contaminated ethyl alcohol from a liquor factory. J Clin Microbiol 37:2280-4.
Hunt LW, Boone-Orke JL, Fransway AF, Fremstad CE, Jones RT, Swanson MC, McEvoy MT, Miller LK, Majerus ET, Luker PA, Scheppmann DL, Webb MJ, Yunginger JW. 1996. A medical-center-wide, multidisciplinary approach to the problem of natural rubber latex allergy. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 38:765-770.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1976. Cadmium, Nickel, Some Epoxides, Miscellaneous Industrial Chemicals and General Considerations on Volatile Anaesthetics. IARC Monographs, Vol. 11, p. 285-293.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1987. Anesthetics, Volatile (Group 3). In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Supplement 7. Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs volumes 1 to 42. International Agency for Research on Cancer, p. 93-95.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 1994. Some Industrial Chemicals. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, vol. 60. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. 560 pp.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2004. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans: Pharmaceutical Drugs. International Agency for Research on Cancer. http://www.iarc.fr.
Jachuck SF, Bound CL, Steel J, Blain PG. 1989. Occupational hazard in hospital staff exposed to 2 per cent glutaraldehyde in an endoscopy unit. The Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine 39:69-71.
Jaeger D, Kleinhans D, Czuppon AB, Baur X. 1992. Latex-specific proteins causing immediate-type cutaneous, nasal, bronchial, and systemic reactions. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 89:759-768.
JCAHO (Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations). 2006. Clarification on alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR). Environment of Care News 9:9.
Johansson H. 1979. How hazardous are cytotoxic agents to personnel? (in Swedish). Vardfacket 3:10-16.
Kardos L, Szeles G, Gombkoto G, Szeremi M, Tompa A, Adany R. 2003. Cancer deaths among hospital staff potentially exposed to ethylene oxide: An epidemiological analysis. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 42:59-60.
Katelaris C, Widmer RP, Lazarus RM. 1996. Prevalence of latex allergy in a dental school. Medical Journal of Australia 164:711-714.
Kavlock RJ. 1996. Experimental studies on chemical inducing eye abnormalities. Teratology 53:15.
Kelly KJ, Sussman G, Fink JN. 1996. Stop the sensitization. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 98:857-858.
Kiec-Swierczynska M, Krecisz B. 2000. Occupational skin diseases among the nurses in the region of Lodz. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 13:179-84.
Kirman CR, Sweeney LM, Teta MJ, Sielken RL, Valdez-Flores C, Albertini RJ, Gargas ML. 2004. Addressing nonlinearity in the exposure-response relationship for a genotoxic carcinogen: cancer potency estimates for ethylene oxide. Risk Analysis 24:1165-1183.
Klees JE, Lash A, Bowler RM, Shore M, Becker CE. 1990. Neuropsychologic "impairment" in a cohort of hospital workers chronically exposed to ethylene oxide. Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology 28:21-28.
Knill-Jones RP, Rodrigues LV, Moir DD, and Spence AA. 1972. Anaesthetic practice and pregnancy: Controlled survey of women anaesthetists in the United Kingdom. The Lancet 1:1326-1328.
Knill-Jones RP, Newman BJ, Spence AA. 1975. Anaesthetic practice and pregnancy: Controlled survey of male anaesthetists in the United Kingdom. The Lancet 2:807-809.
Kolpin, DW, ET Furlong, et al. (2002). Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: a national reconnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 36(6): 1202-11.
Kripke BJ, Kelman AD, Shah NK, Balogh K, Handler AH. 1976. Testicular reaction to prolonged exposure to nitrous oxide. Anesthesiology 44:104-113.
Krstev S, Perunicic B, Vidakovic A. 2003. Work practice and some adverse health effects in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs. Med Lav 94:432-439.
Kuiken, Todd. 2002. The Hidden Dangers of Mercury: A Resource Guide for Procurement Officers and Consumers about Mercury in Products and their Alternatives. National Wildlife Federation. P. 1-16.
LaMontagne AD and Kelsey KT. 1997. Evaluating OSHA's ethylene oxide standard: employer exposure-monitoring activities in Massachusetts hospitals from 1985 through 1993. American Journal of Public Health 87:1119-1125.
LaMontagne AD, Mangione TW, Christiani DC, Kelsey KT. 1996a. Medical surveillance for ethylene oxide exposure: Practices and clinical findings in Massachusetts hospitals. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 38:144-154.
LaMontagne AD, Rudd RE, Mangione TW, Kelsey KT. 1996b. Determinants of the provision of ethylene oxide medical surveillance in Massachusetts hospitals. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 38:155-168.
Landtblom A-M, Tondel M, Hjalmarsson P, Flodin U, Axelson O. 2006. The risk for multiple sclerosis in female nurse anaesthetists: A register based study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 63:387-389.
Larson EL, Aiello AE, Heilman JM, et al. 2001a. Comparison of different regimens for surgical hand preparation. AORN J 73:412-20.
Larson E. Guideline for use of topical antimicrobial agents. 1988. Am J Infect Control 16:253-66.
Larson EL, Aiello AE, Bastyr J, et al. 2001b. Assessment of two hand hygiene regimens for intensive care unit personnel. Crit Care Med 29:944-51.
Larson E, Friedman C, Cohran J, Treston-Aurand J, Green S. 1997. Prevalence and correlates of skin damage on the hands of nurses. Heart Lung 26:404-12.
Larson E, Leyden JJ, McGinley KJ, Grove GL, Talbot GH. 1986. Physiologic and microbiologic changes in skin related to frequent handwashing. Infect Control 7:59-63.
Larson RR, Khazaeli MB, Dillon HK. 2003. A new monitoring method using solid sorbent media for evaluation of airborne cyclophosphamide and other antineoplastic agents. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 18:120-131.
Lauwerys R, Siddons H, Misson CB,Borlee I, Bouckaert A, Lechat MF, De Temmerman P. 1981. Anaesthetic health hazards among Belgian nurses and physicians. International Archives of Occupational and Environonmental Health 48:195-203.
Lenehan, G. 2002. Latex Allergy Separating Fact from Fiction. Nursing 32(3) p 58. March 2002.
Lewis, RJ. 1996. Sax's Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 9th ed. Volumes 1-3. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold, p. 1734.
Lindstrom A, Buerge IJ, Poiger T, Bergqvist PA, Muller MD, Buser HR. 2002. Occurrence and environmental behavior of the bactericide triclosan and its methyl derivative in surface waters and in wastewater. Environmental Science and Technology 36(11)2322-2329.
Liss GM, Sussman GL, Deal K, Brown S, Cividino M, Siu S, Beezhold DH, Smith G, Swanson MC, Yunginger J, Douglas A, Holness DL, Lebert P, Keith P, Wasserman S, Turjanmaa K. 1997. Latex allergy: epidemiological study of 1351 hospital workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 54:335-342.
Lope V, et al. 2006. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields in relation to the risk of thyroid cancer in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 32:276-284.
Lores M, Llopart M, Sanchez-Prado L, Garcia-Jares C, Cela R. 2005. Confirmation of the formation of dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the photodegradation of triclosan by photo-SPME. Annal. Bioanl. Chem. 381: 1294-1298.
Lucchini R, Belotti L, Cassitto MG, Faillace A, Margonari M, Micheloni G, Scapellato ML, Somenzi V, Spada T, Toffoletto F, Gilioli R. 1997. Neurobehavioral functions in operating theatre personnel: a multicenter study. Medicina del Lavoro 88:396-405.
Lucchini R, Placidi D, Toffoletto F, Alessio L. 1996. Neurotoxicity in operating room personnel working with gaseous and nongaseous anesthesia. International Archives of Occupational Environmental Health 68:188-192.
Lucchini R, Toffoletto F, Camerino D, Fazioli R, Ghittori S, Gilioli R, Signorini A, Alessio L. 1995. Neurobehavioral functions in operating theatre personnel exposed to anesthetic gases. Medicina del Lavoro 86:27-33.
Lunsford JM, Wynn MH, Kwan WH. 1983, Nitrous oxide-induced myeloneuropathy. Journal of Foot Surgery 22:222-225.
Lynch DW, Lewis TR, Moorman WJ, Sabharwal PS, Burg JA. 1984. Toxic and mutagenic effects of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide on spermatogenic functions. Toxicologist 3:60.
Ma, X, Buffler PA, Gunier RB, Dahl G, Smith MT, Reinier K, Reynolds P. 2002. Critical windows of exposure to household pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:955-960.
Mader RM, Rizovski B, Steger GG, Wachter A, Kotz R, Rainer H. 1996. Exposure of oncologic nurses to methotrexate in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Arch Environ Health 51:310-314.
Mahon SM, Casperson DS, Yackzan S, Goodner S, Hasse B, Hawkins J, Parham J, Rimkus C, Schlomer M, Witcher V. 1994. Safe handling practices of cytotoxic drugs: the results of a chapter survey. Oncol Nurs Forum 21:1157-1165.
Malhotra SK, Dhananjaya PR, Singh H, Pershad D. 1993. Effect of halothane exposure on motor skills & memory in anaesthetists. Indian Journal of Medical Research 98:218-222.
Marks TA, Worthy WC, Staples RE. 1980. Influence of formaldehyde and Sonacide (potentiated acid glutaraldehyde) on embryo and fetal development in mice. Teratology 22:51-58.
Marrie TJ, Costerton JW. 1981. Prolonged survival of Serratia marcescens in chlorhexidine. Appl Environ Microbiol 42:1093-102.
Martin S. 2005. The adverse health effects of occupational exposure to hazardous drugs. Community Oncology 2:397-400.
Martin S, Larson E. 2003. Chemotherapy-handling practices of outpatient and office-based oncology nurses. Oncol Nurs Forum 30:575-581.
Mazze RI, Fujinaga M, Rice SA, Harris SB, Baden JM. 1986. Reproductive and teratogenic effects of nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, and enflurane in Sprague-Dawley rats. Anesthesiology 64:339-344.
McAllister TA, Lucas CE, Mocan H, et al. 1989. Serratia marcescens outbreak in a paediatric oncology unit traced to contaminated chlorhexidine. Scott Med J 34:525-8.
McConnell R, Berhane K, Gilliland F, London SJ, Islam T, Gauderman WJ, Avol E, Margolis HG, Peters JM. 2002. Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: A cohort study. Lancet 359:386-391.
McDiarmid M, Egan T. 1988. Acute occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents. J Occup Med 30(12):984-987.
McDonald AD, McDonald JC, Armstrong B, et al. 1988. Congenital defects and work in pregnancy. Br J Ind Med 45:581-588.
McDonald TO, Kasten K, Hervey R, Gregg S, Britton B. 1977. Acute ocular toxicity for normal and irritated rabbit eyes and subacute ocular toxicity for ethylene oxide, ethylene chlorohydrin, and ethylene glycol. Bulletin of the Parenteral Drug Association 31:25-32.
McMurry LM, Oethinger M, Levy SB. 1998. Overexpression of marA, soxS, or acrAB produces resistance to triclosan in laboratory and clinical strains of Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett 166:305-9.
Meade JB, Weissman DN, Beezhold DH. 2002. Latex allergy: past and present. International Immunopharmacology 2:225-238.
Menegaux F, et al. 2006. Household exposure to pesticides and risk of childhood acute leukaemia. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 63:131-134.
Messing K, Seifert AM, Bradley WE. 1986. In vivo mutant frequency of technicians professionally exposed to ionizing radiation. Progress in Clinical and Biological Research 207:87-97.
Minoia C, Turci R, Sottani C, Schiavi A, Perbellini L, Angeleri S, Draicchio F, Apostoli P. 1998. Application of high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in the environmental and biological monitoring of healthcare personnel occupationally exposed to cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 12:1485-1493.
Moen BE, Kyvik KR, Engelsen BA, Riise T. 1990. Cerebrospinal fluid proteins and free amino acids in patients with solvent induced chronic toxic encephalopathy and healthy controls. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 47:277-280.
Mohan AK, et al. 2003. Cancer and other causes of mortality among radiologic technologists in the United States. International Journal of Cancer 103:259-267.
Monroe County Department of Health. 1998. Reducing Mercury Use in Healthcare, Promoting a Healthier Environment: A How-To Manual. Environmental Protection Agency. P. 2-8.
Morgan R, Claxton K, Divine B, Kaplan S, Harris V. 1981. Mortality among ethylene oxide workers. Journal of Occupational Medicine 23:767-770.
NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics). 2005. Health, United States, 2005. Department of Health and Human Services. Pg 351. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm. Accessed October 9, 2006.
Neeper-Bradley TL, Ballantyne B. 2000. Two-generation reproduction study by dosing with glutaraldehyde in the drinking water of CD rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 61:107-129.
NFESC (Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center). 2004. Low-temperature oxidative sterilization methods for sterilizing medical devices. In: Joint Service Pollution Prevention Opportunity Handbook. http://p2library.nfesc.navy.mil/P2_Opportunity_Handbook/12_3.html. Accessed August 15, 2006.
Ng LM, Jaffe N. 1970. Possible hazards of handling antineoplastic drugs[letters to the editor]. Pediatrics 46:648-649.
NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences). 1998. NIEHS Technical Report on the Reproductive, Developmental, and General Toxicity Study of 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), Trimethoprim (TMP)/Sulfamethaoxazole (SMX), and Folinic Acid Combinations Administered by Gavage to Swiss (CD-1®) Mice. NIH Publication No. 99-3940.
NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences). 2003. Symposium on Children's Environmental Health: Identifying and Preventing Environmental Risks. NIH Campus, Bethesda MD. P. 7.
Nieweg RMB, de Boer M, Dubbleman RC, Gall HE, Hesselman GM, Lenssen PCHP, van Maanen LWGM, Majoor PWFM, Ouwerkerk J, Slegt JH. 1994. Safe handling of antineoplastic drugs. Cancer Nurs 17:501-511.
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 1973. Criteria for a Recommended Standard. Occupational Exposure to Inorganic Mercury. Publication No. 73-11024. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. P. 1-127.
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 1984. National Occupational Exposure Survey (1981-83). Cincinnati, OH: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cdc.gov/noes/noes3/empl0003.html. Accessed August 15, 2006.
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 1994. Controlling exposures to nitrous oxide during anesthetic administration. Pubication No. 94-100. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/noxidalr.html. Accessed August 18, 2006.
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 1997. Preventing allergic reactions to natural rubber latex in the workplace. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Publication No. 97-135.
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 1997. NIOSH Facts - Latex Allergy. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/latexfs.html.
NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health). 2001. Glutaraldehyde: Occupational hazards in hospitals. Publication No. 2001-115. Department of Health and Human Services.
NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health). 2004a. Preventing Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care Settings. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-165/. Accessed October 5, 2006.
NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health). 2004b. Arsenic. In: NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. Publication No. 97-140. Department of Health and Human Services.
NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Safety and Health Topic: Health Care Workers. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/. Accessed August 25, 2006.
Nishioka K, Seguchi T, Yasuno H, Yamamoto T, Tominaga K. 2000. The results of ingredient patch testing in contact dermatitis elicited by povidone- iodine preparations. Contact Dermatitis 42:90-4.
Norman SA, Berlin JA, Soper KA, Middendorf BF, Stolley PD. 1995. Cancer incidence in a group of workers potentially exposed to ethylene oxide. International Journal of Epidemiology 24:276-284.
NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1987. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Ethylene Oxide (CAS No. 75-21-8) in B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies). Technical Report 326. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services.http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/LT_rpts/tr326.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2006.
NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2004. Ethylene Oxide CAS No. 75-21-8. In: Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services. http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/toc11.html. Accessed August 15, 2006.
OARAC (Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council). 2006. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents. Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents - a Working Group of OARAC. May 4, 2006.
Oie S, Kamiya A. 1996. Microbial contamination of antiseptics and disinfectants. Am J Infect Control 24:389-95.
Ophaswongse S, Maibach HI. 1994. Alcohol dermatitis: allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria syndrome: a review. Contact Dermatitis 30:1-6.
Orbaek P and Lindgren M. 1988. Prospective clinical and psychometric investigation of patients with chronic toxic encephalopathy induced by solvents. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 14:37-44.
Orvos DR, Versteeg DJ, Inauen J, Capdevielle M, Rothenstein A, Cunningham V. 2002. Aquatic toxicity of triclosan. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21(7)1338-1349.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). 1986. Guidelines for cytotoxic (antineoplastic) drugs. Publication No. 8-1.1. Department of Labor.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). 1999. Hospital Investigations: Health Hazards. In: OSHA Technical Manual, Section VI, Chapter 1. Department of Labor. http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_vi/otm_vi_1.html. Accessed October 2, 2006.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). 1999. Categorization of drugs as hazardous. In: OSHA Technical Manual, Section VI, Chapter 2. Department of Labor. http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/ otm/otm_vi/otm_vi_2.html#2. Accessed October 5, 2006.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Association). 2000. Occupational Safety and Health Guideline: Mercury Vapor. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/mercuryvapor/recognition.html
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). 2000. Anesthetic Gases: Guidelines for Workplace Exposures. http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/anestheticgases/index.html. Accessed August 18, 2006.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). 2000. Revisions to the Voluntary Protection Programs to Provide Safe and Healthful Working Conditions. FR# 65:45649-45663. Department of Labor. http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table= FEDERAL_REGISTER&p_id=15440&p_text_version=FALSE. Accessed August 25, 2006.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 2005. Regulatory Review of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Ethylene Oxide Standard [29 CFR 1910.1047]. http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/compliance_assistance/lookback/ ethylene_oxide_lookback.html. Accessed August 15, 2006.
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Association). 2006. Healthcare-Wide Hazards Module: Mercury. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/hospital/hazards/mercury/mercury.html
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration). 2006. Hospital eTool. Department of Labor. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/hospital/. Accessed August 25, 2006.
Owens K, Beyond Pesticides. 2004. Healthy Hospitals: Controlling pests without harmful pesticides. CleanMed Conference, April 15, 2004. http://www.cleanmed.org/2004/downloads.html. Accessed August 29, 2006.
Ownby DR, Ownby HE, McCullough J, Shafer AW. 1996. The prevalence of anti-latex IgE antibodies in 1000 volunteer blood donors. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 97:1188-1192.
Pechter E, Davis LK, Tumpowsky C et al. 2005. Work-related asthma among health care workers: surveillance data from California, Massachusetts, Michigan, and New Jersey, 1993-1997. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 47:265-275.
Perera F, Rauh V, Tsai WY, Kinney P, Camann D, Barr D, Bernert T, Garfinkel R, Tu Y-H, Diaz D, Dietrich J, Whyatt RM. 2002. Effects of transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants on birth outcomes in a multi-ethnic population. Environmental Health Perspectives 111:201-205.
Peric M, Petrovecki M, Marusic M. 1994. Age-dependent haematological disturbances in anaesthetic personnel chronically exposed to high occupational concentrations of halothane and nitrous oxide. Anaesthesia 49:1022-1027.
Peric M, Vranes Z, Marusic M. 1991. Immunological disturbances in anaesthetic personnel chronically exposed to high occupational concentrations of nitrous oxide and halothane. Anaesthesia 46:531-537.
Perrenoud D, Bircher A, Hunziker T, et al. 1994. Frequency of sensitization to 13 common preservatives in Switzerland. Contact Dermatitis 30:276-9.
Persliden J. 2005. Patient and staff doses in interventional X-ray procedures in Sweden. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry 114:150-157.
Pethran A, Schierl R, Hauff K, Grimm C-H, Boos K-S, Nowak D. 2003. Uptake of antineoplastic agents in pharmacy and hospital personnel. Part 1: monitoring of urinary concentrations. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 76:5-10.
Pham, NH, Weiner JM, Reisner GS, and Baldo BA. 2000. Anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine. Case report. Implication of immunoglobulin E antibodies and identification of an allergenic determinant. Clin Exp Allergy 30:1001-7.
Pharoah POD, Alberman E, Doyle P, and Chamberlain G. 1977. Outcome of pregnancy among women in anaesthetic practice. The Lancet 1:34-36.
Pope WD, Halsey MJ, Lansdown AB, Simmonds A, Bateman PE. 1978. Fetotoxicity in rats following chronic exposure to halothane, nitrous oxide, or methoxyflurane. Anesthesiology 48:11-16.
Popova S, Virgieva T, Atanasova J, Atansov A, Sahatchiev B. Embrotoxicity and fertility study with halothane subanesthetic concentration in rats. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 23: 505-512.
Prasad KN, Cole WC, Hasse GM. 2004. Health risks of low dose ionizing radiation in humans: a review. Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood) 229:378-382.
Pyszel A, Wróbel T, Szuba A, Andrzejak R. 2005. Effect of metals, benzene, pesticides and ethylene oxide on the haematopoietic system. Medycyna pracy 56:249-255.
Quaghebeur G, Bhattacharya JJ, Murfitt J. 1997. Radiologists and visual acuity. European Radiology 7:41-43.
Rastogi SC, Heydorn S, Johansen JD, Basketter DA. 2001. Fragrance chemicals in domestic and occupational products. Contact Dermatitis 45:221-5.
Rideout K, Teschke K, Dimich-Ward H, Kennedy SM. 2005. Considering risks to healthcare workers from glutaraldehyde alternatives in high-level disinfection. J Hosp Infect. 59:4-11.
Risher, Dr. JF. 2003. Elemental Mercury and Inorganic Mercury Compounds: Human Health Aspects. International Programme on Chemical Safety World Health Organization, Geneva. P. 5-12, 21-26.
Rosen A, Isaacson D, Brady M, Corey JP. 1993. Hypersensitivity to latex in health care workers: report of five cases. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 109:731-734.
Rosenberg A, Alatary SD, Peterson AF. 1976. Safety and efficacy of the antiseptic chlorhexidine gluconate. Surg Gynecol Obstet 143:789-92.
Rosenberg P and Kirves A. 1973. Miscarriages among operating theatre staff. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Supplementum 53:37-42.
Rosenberg PH and Vanttinnen H. 1978. Occupational hazards to reproduction and health in anaesthetists and paediatricians. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 22:202-207.
Ross MA, et al. 2002. Effect of ozone and aeroallergens on the respiratory health of asthmatics. Archives of Environmental Health 57:568-578.
Rotter M. 1999. Hand washing and hand disinfection [Chapter 87]. In: Mayhall CG, ed. Hospital epidemiology and infection control. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Rowland AS, Baird DD, Weinberg CR, Shore DL, Shy CM, Wilcox AJ. 1992. Reduced fertility among women employed as dental assistants exposed to high levels of nitrous oxide. New England Journal of Medicine 327:993-997.
Rowland AS, Baird DD, Shore DL, Weinberg CR, Savitz DA, and Wilcox AJ. 1995. Nitrous oxide and spontaneous abortion in female dental assistants. American Journal of Epidemiology 141:531-538.
Rule K, Ebbett VR, Vikesland PJ. Formation of chloroform and chlorinated organics by chlorine-mediated oxidation of triclosan. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005, 39, 3176-3185.
Russell AD. 2001. Mechanisms of bacterial insusceptibility to biocides. Am J Infect Control 29:259-61.
Russell A. 2002. Biocides and pharmacologically active drugs as residues and in the environment: Is there a correlation with antibiotic resistance? American Journal of Infection Control 30(8)495-498.
Rutledge JC, Generoso WM. 1989. Fetal pathology produced by ethylene oxide treatment of the murine zygote. Teratology 39:563-572.
Samsoe-Petersen L, Winther-Nielsen M, Madsen T. 2003. Fate and Effects of Triclosan. Danish EPA, September 2003.
Sardas S, Cuhruk H, Karakaya AE, Atakurt Y. 1992. Sister-chromatid exchanges in operating room personnel. Mutation Research 279:117-120.
Sattler B, Lipscomb J. 2002. Environmental Health and Nursing Practice. New York: Springer Publishing.
Saurel-Cubizolles MJ, Estryn-Behar M, Maillard MF, Mugnier N, Masson A, Monod G. 1992. Neuropsychological symptoms and occupational exposure to anaesthetics. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 49:276-281.
Saurel-Cubizolles MJ, Hays M, Estryn-Behar M. 1994. Work in operating rooms and pregnancy outcome among nurses. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 66:235-241.
Sautter RL, Mattman LH, Legaspi RC. 1984. Serratia marcescens meningitis associated with a contaminated benzalkonium chloride solution. Infect Control 5:223-5.
Schettler T, Solomon G, Valenti M, Huddle A. 2000. Generations at Risk: Reproductive health and the environment. Boston: MIT.
Schmähl D, Habs M. 1978. Experimental carcinogenesis of antitumor drugs. Cancer Treat Rev 5:175-184.
Schnuch A, Uter W, Geier J, Frosch PJ, Rustemeyer T. 1998. Contact allergies in healthcare workers - results from the IVDK. Acta Derm Venereol 78:358-63.
Seaton A, Cherrie B, Turnbull J . Rubber glove asthma. British Medical Journal 296:531-532.
Selevan SG, Lindbohm M-L, Hornung RW, Hemminki K. 1985. A study of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs and fetal loss in nurses. N Engl J Med 313:1173-1178.
Sessink PJM, Boer KA, Scheefhals APH, Anzion RBM, Bos RP. 1992. Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents at several departments in a hospital: environmental contamination and excretion of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide in urine of exposed workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 64:105-112.
Sessink PJM, Cerná M, Rössner P, Pastorková A, Bavarová H, Franková K, Anzion RBM, Bos RP. 1994a. Urinary cyclophosphamide excretion and chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes after occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents. Mutat Res 309:193-199.
Sessink PJM, Van der Kerkhof MCA, Anzion RBM, Noordhoek J, Bos RP. 1994b. Environmental contamination and assessment of exposure to antineoplastic agents by determination of cyclophosphamide in urine of exposed pharmacy technicians: is skin absorption an important exposure route? Arch Environ Health 49:165-169.
Sessink PJM, Wittenhorst BCJ, Anzion RBM, Bos RP. 1997. Exposure of pharmacy technicians to antineoplastic agents: reevaluation after additional protective measures. Arch Environ Health 52:240-244.
SH (Sustainable Hospitals). 2006. Products and Resources for Category/Subcategory: Disinfection and Sterilization High Level Disinfectants & Sterilants. http://www.sustainablehospitals.org/cgi-bin/DB_Report.cgi?px=W&rpt=
Subcat&id=28!30. Accessed August 2 2006.
Shah RM, Burdett DN, Donaldson D. 1979. The effects of nitrous oxide on the developing hamster embryos. Canadian Journal of Physiology Pharmacology 57:1229-1232.
Shimkin MB, Weisburger JH, Weisburger EK, Gubareff N, Suntzeff V. 1966. Bioassay of 29 alkylating chemicals by the pulmonary-tumor response in strain A mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 36:915-935.
Shore RE, Gardner MJ, Pannett B. 1993. Ethylene oxide: an assessment of the epidemiological evidence on carcinogenicity. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 50: 971-997.
Shuman RM, Leech RW, Alvord EC Jr. 1975. Neurotoxicity of hexachlorophene in humans: II. a clinicopathological study of 46 premature infants. Arch Neurol 32:320-5.
Sigurdson AJ, et al. 2003. Cancer incidence in the US radiologic technologists health study, 1983-1998. Cancer 97:3080-3089.
Sittig M. 1985. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 1985. 2nd ed. Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ: p. 433.
Skov T, Maarup B, Olsen J, Rørth M, Winthereik H, Lynge E. 1992. Leukaemia and reproductive outcome among nurses handling antineoplastic drugs. Br J Ind Med 49:855-861.
Snellings W, Weil C, Maronpot R. 1984. A two-year inhalation study of the carcinogenic potential of ethylene oxide in Fischer 344 rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 75:105-117.
Sponselli C. 1996. Latex Allergies. Nurse Week. December 1996. http://www.nurseweek.com/features/96-12/latex.html. Accessed January 17 2007.
Stacy CB, Di Rocco A, Gould RJ. 1992. Methionine in the treatment of nitrous-oxide-induced neuropathy and myeloneuropathy. Journal of Neuropathy 239:401-403.
Steenland K, Stayner L, Deddens J. 2004. Mortality analyses in a cohort of 18 235 ethylene oxide exposed workers: Follow up extended from 1987 to 1998. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 61:2-7.
Steenland K, Stayner L, Greife A, Halperin W, Hayes R, Hornung R, Nowlin S. 1991. Mortality among workers exposed to ethylene oxide. New England Journal of Medicine 324:1402-1407.
Steenland K, Whelan E, Deddens J, Stayner L, Ward E. 2003. Ethylene oxide and breast cancer in a cohort study of 7576 women (United States). Cancer Causes Control 14:531-539.
Steffek AJ, Clayton R, Siew C, Verrusio AC. 1987. Effects of elemental mercury vapor exposure on pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. J Dent Res 66:239.
Stücker I, Caillard J-F, Collin R, Gout M, Poyen D, Hëmon D. 1990. Risk of spontaneous abortion among nurses handling antineoplastic drugs. Scand J Work Environ Health 16:102-107.
Sussman GL and Beezhold DH. 1995. Allergy to latex rubber. Annals of Internal Medicine 122:43-46.
Swan SH, Brazil C, Brobnis EZ, Liu F, Kruse RL, Hatch M, Redmon JB, Wang C, Overstreet JW, and the Study for Future Families Research Group. 2003. Geographic differences in semen quality of fertile US males. Environmental Health Perspectives 111:414-420.
Swan SH. 2006. Semen quality in fertile US men in relation to geographical area and pesticide exposure. Int J Androl 29:62-68.
Takigawa T and Endo Y. 2006. Effects of glutaraldehyde exposure on human health. J Occup Health 48:75-87.
Tarlo SM, Sussman G, Contala A, Swanson MC. 1994. Control of airborne latex by use of powder-free gloves. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 93:985-989.
Tarlo SM, Wong L, Roos J, Booth N. 1990. Occupational asthma caused by latex in a surgical glove manufacturing plant. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 85:626-631.
Taylor JS, Casssetari J, Wagner W, Helm T. 1989. Contact urticaria and anaphylaxis to latex. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 21:874-877.
Teta MJ, Benson LO, Vitale JN. 1993. Mortality study of ethylene oxide workers in chemical manufacturing: a 10 year update. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 50:704-709.
Tillotson T. 1997. Health Industry Manufacturers Association. Cited in Foreman J. 1997. Latex allergies can cause misery. The Boston Globe. July 28, 1997.
TNO. 2005. Man-made Chemicals in Maternal and Cord Blood. TNO-B&O-A R 2005/129. March 2005. http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/ man-made-chemicals-in-maternal.pdf. Accessed November 21, 2006.
Tomlin PJ. 1979. Health problems of anaesthetists and their families in the West Midlands. British Medical Journal 1:779-784.
Tomlinson M and M Wallace. Can buildings make you sick? Nova. 1995.
Tupker RA. 1996. Detergents and cleansers [Chapter 7]. In: van der Valk PGM, Maibach HI, eds. The Irritant Contact Dermatitis Syndrome. New York, NY: CRC Press.
Turci R, Sottani C, Schierl R, Minoia C. 2006. Validation protocol and analytical quality in biological monitoring of occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs. Toxicology Letters 162:256-262.
Turci R, Sottani C, Spagnoli G, Minoia C. 2003. Biological and environmental monitoring of hospital personnel exposed to antineoplastic agents: A review of analytical methods. Journal of Chromatography B 789:169-209.
Uter W, Schnuch A, Geier J, Pfahlberg A, Gefeller O. 2001. Association between occupation and contact allergy to the fragrance mix: a multifactorial analysis of national surveillance data. Occup Environ Med 58:392-8.
Valanis B, McNeil V, Driscoll K. 1991. Staff members' compliance with their facility's antineoplastic drug handling policy. Onc Nurs Forum 18(3):571-576.
Valanis B, Vollmer W, Labuhn K, Glass A. 1990. Health and occupational exposure to anti-neoplastic drugs. American Journal of Epidemiology 132:810.
Valanis B, Vollmer WM, Labuhn K, Glass A, Corelle C. 1992. Antineoplastic drug handling protection after OSHA guidelines: comparison by profession, handling activity, and work site. J Occup Med 34:149–155.
Valanis B, Vollmer WM, Steele P. 1999. Occupational exposure to antineoplastic agents: self-reported miscarriages and stillbirths among nurses and pharmacists. J Occup Environ Med 41(8):632-638.
Valanis BG, Vollmer WM, Labuhn KT, Glass AG. 1993a. Acute symptoms associated with antineoplastic drug handling among nurses. Cancer Nurs 16(4):288-295.
Valanis BG, Vollmer WM, Labuhn KT, Glass AG. 1993b. Association of antineoplastic drug handling with acute adverse effects in pharmacy personnel. Am J Hosp Pharm 50:455-462.
Van Miller JP, Hermansky SJ, Losco PE, Ballantyne B. 2002. Chronic toxicity and oncogenicity study with glutaraldehyde dosed in the drinking water of Fischer 344 rats. Toxicology 175:177-189.
Veldhoen N, Skirrow RC, Osachoff H, Wigmore H, Clapson DJ, Gunderson MP, Van Aggelen G, Helbing CC. 2006. The bactericidal agent triclosan modulates thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and disrupts postembryonic anuran development. Aquat Toxicol 80:217-227.
Venables K, Chan-Yeung M. 1997. Occupational asthma. The Lancet 349:1465-1469.
Verraes S and Michel O. 1995. Occupational asthma induced by ethylene oxide. The Lancet 346:1434-1435.
Vigeant P, Loo VG, Bertrand C, et al. 1998. An outbreak of Serratia marcescens infections related to contaminated chlorhexidine. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 19:791-4.
Vu-Thien H, Darbord JC, Moissenet D, et al. 1998. Investigation of an outbreak of wound infections due to Alcaligenes xylosoxidans transmitted by chlorhexidine in a burns unit. Eur J Clin Microbiol 17:724-6.
Vyas A, Pickering CAC, Oldham LA, Francis HC, Fletcher AM, Merrett T, Niven RM. 2000. Survey of symptoms, respiratory function, and immunology and their relation to glutaraldehyde and other occupational exposures among endoscopy nursing staff. Occup Environ Med 57:752-759.
Walusiak J, Wittczak T, Ruta U, Palczynski C. 2002. Occupational asthma due to mitoxantrone. Allergy 57:461.
Wang JX, et al. 2002. Cancer incidence and risk estimation among medical x-ray workers in China, 1950-1995. Health Physics 82:455-466.
Weisburger JH, Griswold DP, Prejean JD, Casey AE, Wood HB, Weisburger EK. 1975. The carcinogenic properties of some of the principal drugs used in clinical cancer chemotherapy. Recent Results Cancer Res 52:1-17.
Wharton RS, Mazze RI, Baden JM, Hitt BA, Dooley JR. 1978. Fertility, reproduction and postnatal survival in mice chronically exposed to halothane. Anesthesiology 48:167-174.
Wharton RS, Wilson AI, Mazze RI, Baden JM, Rice SA. 1979. Fetal morphology in mice exposed to halothane. Anesthesiology 51:532-537.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1991. Environmental Health Criteria 118 Inorganic Mercury. International Programme on Chemical Safety P. 1-168.
WHO (World Health Organization). 1985. Ethylene Oxide. Environmental Health Criteria 55. World Health Organization, Geneva. http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc55.htm. Accessed August 15, 2006.
Wick C, Slawson MH, Jorgenson JA, Tyler LS. 2003. Using a closed-system protective device to reduce personnel exposure to antineoplastic agents. Am J Health Syst Pharm 60:2314-2320.
Wiesner G, Hoerauf K, Schroegendorfer K, Sobczynski P, Harth M, Ruediger HW. 2001. High-level, but not low-level, occupational exposure to inhaled anesthetics is associated with genotoxicity in the micronucleus assay. Anesthesia and Analgesia 92:118-122.
Wilburn S. 2005. Moving up the Hierarchy of Controls: Proposing a new chemicals policy. American Journal of Nursing 105:112.
Wingren G, Hallquist A, Hardell L. 1997. Diagnostic X-ray exposure and female papillary thyroid cancer: a pooled analysis of two Swedish studies. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 6:550-556.
Winnefeld M, Richard MA, Drancourt M, Grobb JJ. 2000. Skin tolerance and effectiveness of two hand decontamination procedures in everyday hospital use. Br J Dermatol 143:546-50.
Wong CSM, Beck MH. 2001. Allergic contact dermatitis from triclosan in antibacterial handwashes. Contact Dermatitis 45:307.
Yoshinaga S, et al. 2004. Cancer risks among radiologists and radiologic technologists: review of epidemiologic studies. Radiology 233:313-321.
Yoshinaga S, et al. 2005. Nonmelanoma skin cancer in relation to ionizing radiation exposure among U.S. radiologic technologists. International Journal of Cancer 115:828-834.