Just Add Water: Alabama
Weakening the Safe Drinking Water Act
In 1994 and 1995, 459,966 people in 106 communities in Alabama drank water that failed to meet federal health standards established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). In addition, 7 schools, hospitals and daycare centers with privately owned water supplies - responsible for providing water to 1,321 of society's most vulnerable members - also reported violations of basic drinking water safety standards.
Draft legislation circulated April 19, 1996 by Commerce Committee Chairman Thomas Bliley of Virginia would severely weaken scores of provisions in the Act. The legislation, which is the main legislative vehicle for SDWA reform in the House of Representatives, is scheduled for a vote in the House in early May. If enacted, the "Bliley bill" would subvert the basic health standards in current law, curtail the monitoring of drinking water contaminants, limit the public's right to know about drinking water problems, and allow more fecal matter and toxic chemicals in the drinking - also reported water of small and medium sized communities than would be allowed in large cities.
Much of this effort to roll back standards is being driven by the pesticide and chlorine industries - some of the largest polluters of our nation's drinking water. Since January 1993, Political Action Committees representing these industries have contributed over $45,000 to Representative Thomas Bliley (R- VA), the chairman of the House Commerce Committee responsible for rewriting the law.
Tap water in Alabama continues to be plagued by basic bacterial contamination problems. Data on compliance with federal health standards, which are supplied to EPA by state authorities, indicate that in 1994-1995, 26,526 people in 5 communities drank water from water systems containing disease-causing fecal matter. 238,255 people in Alabama drank water from suppliers with chronic coliform bacteria, and 13,400 in 3 communities drank from water suppliers that failed to meet EPA standards for adequately filtering and disinfecting tap water. Largely on the basis of widespread contamination of tap water by Cryptosporidium, a microbial parasite, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and the U.S. EPA issued an unprecedented warning last year that all Americans with compromised immune systems - including cancer and organ transplant patients, and individuals who are HIV positive - should consider boiling their drinking water or drink bottled water.
Chemical contamination of drinking water also poses major health threats in Alabama. In 1994-1995, 125,816 people in Alabama drank water from suppliers with excess levels of lead, and 86,784 in 8 communities drank water that contained unsafe levels of toxic chemicals or radioactivity.
Communities Affected By Drinking Water Violations The largest water suppliers in the state with violations of EPA drinking water standards were Anniston Water & Sewer Board in Anniston, Selma Water Works & Sewer Board in Selma, and Mobile County Water & Fire Pro. Authority in Theodore. Communities with schools, hospitals, or daycare centers that violated EPA standards included Heflin and Lafayette. Legislative provisions that allow weaker standards for smaller communities are particularly troubling for Alabama, where 85 percent of all violations in 1994-1995 occurred in water systems serving less than 10,000 people.
Monitoring Violations and Enforcement Actions
In addition to the thousands of individuals in Alabama affected by unsafe water, many more drank water from suppliers that failed to perform necessary testing to ensure the safety of tap water. In 1994-1995, 706534 people in Alabama drank water served by 300 water systems that failed to meet basic sanitary testing requirements for tap water.
Over this same time period, the Alabama drinking water agency and the EPA took 23 enforcement actions against water suppliers that were not meeting basic health requirements or failing to adequately test tap water.
As Just Add Water goes to press, Congress is poised to weaken the basic public health protections provided by the Safe Drinking Water Act. Persistent drinking water safety problems indicate that it's time to strengthen, not weaken the law designed to ensure the safety of Alabama's drinking water.