EWG analysis based on data from: http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do;jsessionid=39589A84B623FFB18D319BF97277F79C?documentID=1560. Application rates for hay are based on CA rates of pesticide application from http://www.pesticideinfo.org/DS.jsp?sk=23001#TopRegions
Gilliom, R.J., Barbash, J.E., Crawford, G.G., Hamilton, P.A., Martin, J.D., Nakagaki, N., Nowell, L.H., Scott, J.C., Stackelberg, P.E., Thelin, G.P., and Wolock, D.M. (Feb. 15, 2007); The Quality of our nation’s waters: Pesticides in the nation’s streams and ground water, 1992–2001, Chapter 1, Page 4. US Geological Survey; accessed March 2011 at: http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2005/1291/pdf/circ1291_chapter1.pdf
EWG analysis based on data from: Table 2 @ http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/FertilizerUse/, Hay application rates from https://cru84.cahe.wsu.edu/ItemDetail.aspx?ProductID=15009&SeriesCode=&CategoryID=131&Keyword=, and nutrient application rates at http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do;jsessionid=39589A84B623FFB18D319BF97277F79C?documentID=1560 for sorghum, barley, and oats.
United Nations Environmental Program, The Fertilizer Industry’s Manufacturing Processes and Environmental Isssues, 1998, p. 48. Accessed February 2011: http://www.pdf-freedownload.com/search/view/view.php?urllink=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fertilizer.org%2Fifacontent%2Fdownload%2F5413%2F85268%2Fversion%2F1%2Ffile%2Ftr26-part1.pdf&searchx=environmental%20impact%20of%20fertilizer%20industry
EWG calculations include cropland used for pasture, grassland and other non-forested pasture, as well as woodland grazed in farms plus estimates of forested grazing land not in farms. Summary tables at http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/MajorLandUses/
EPA, “Specific State Probable Sources that make up the National Agriculture Probable Source Group,” http://iaspub.epa.gov/tmdl_waters10/attains_nation_cy.source_detail?p_source_group_name=AGRICULTURE (accessed November 2010)
EWG calculations are based on percent acreage devoted for feed from tables 4, 5, 6, and 8 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/data/feedgrains/feedyearbook.aspx, for wheat: http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_Subject/result.php?322FBED4-00A0-3D59-8131-50EF47B85426§or=CROPS&group=FIELD%20CROPS&comm=WHEAT, for soy: http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do?documentID=1290 and http://soymeal.org, includes byproducts from corn processing, accounts for equine hay consumption. Total harvested cropland: 309,607,601 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/MajorLandUses/.
EPA, “Specific State Probable Sources that make up the National Agriculture Probable Source Group.” http://iaspub.epa.gov/tmdl_waters10/attains_nation_cy.source_detail?p_source_group_name=AGRICULTURE (accessed November 2010)
EWG analysis, Farm Subsidy Database
Rodrigue, Dr. Jean-Paul and Comtois, Dr. Claude, Slack, Brian. 2009, The Environmental Impacts of Transportation. New York: Routledge.
FY-2005 Annual Report Manure and Byproduct Utilization: National Program 206” USDA, 2005, http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/programs/programs.htm?np_code=206&docid=13337
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – October 2007 FY08-FY10 Compliance and Enforcement National Priority: Clean Water Act, Wet Weather, Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs), accessed November 2011 at: http://epa.gov/compliance/resources/publications/data/planning/priorities/fy2008prioritycwa.pdf
Inventory Of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Sinks: 1990-2008
(April 2010), U.S. EPA # 430-R-10-006 accessed at:
EWG analysis of “EPA data in Specific State Probable Sources that make up the National Agriculture Probable Source Group,” accessed on Nov. 30, 2010 at: http://iaspub.epa.gov/tmdl_waters10/attains_nation_cy.source_detail?p_source_group_name=AGRICULTURE
Victor Fulgani, Current Protein Intake In America: Analysis Of The National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2004, 2008, Am. J. Clin. Nutr; 87 (suppl): 1554S–7S.
EWG analysis of FAO data, provided by FAO in personal communication, July 2010.
US Census Bureau, International Data Base
Muth, Mary, Karns, Shawn A., Nielsen, Samara Joy, Buzby, Jean C., Wells, Hodan Farah. 2011; “Consumer-Level Food Loss Estimates and Their Use in the ERS Loss-Adjusted Food Availability Data, Technical Bulletin Number 1927, US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
EWG analysis of US Department of Agriculture Census Data 2007, accessed January 2011 at:
“Ogallala Aquifer – depth, important, system, source,” Water Encyclopedia, Science and Issues, accessed at: http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Oc-Po/Ogallala-Aquifer.html#ixzz1MMyhaHOD
Kreith, M. 1991, Water Inputs in California Food Production,” Water Education Foundation
National Geographic, April 2010, “Hidden Water” graphic citing the work of Arjen Y. Hoekstra and Ashok K. Chapagain, Globalization of Water Footprint Network, University of Twente, Netherlands.