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D

FD&C YELLOW 5

 
This substance ranges from C to D depending on concentration/usage.
Asthma/Respiratory
 
No Data, Some Concern
 
Skin Allergies &
Irritation
 
No Data, Some Concern
 
Developmental &
Reproductive Toxicity
 
Some Concern
 
Cancer
 
Some Concern
 
Environment
 
Some Concern
 
Top scoring factors: Evidence of general systemic/organ effects; cancer; chronic aquatic toxicity
FD&C YELLOW 5 can be found in 54 products.
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Evidence

Health issue
 
Level of Concern
 
Source
EFSA finds that there is "limited evidence" that Yellow 5 in a mixture with other synthetic colours and sodium benzoate has a "small and statistically significant effect on activity and attention in children selected from the general population."
Only in: Food
 
moderate
 
European Food Safety Authority. 2009. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102). EFSA Journal 7(11), 1331.
European Food Safety Authority reviewed study of children ingesting food colorings and concluded that it provided "limited evidence" that the mixture had a small and statistically significant effect on activity and attention in children.
Only in: Food
 
moderate
 
European Food Safety Authority & Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Food Contact Materials (AFC). 2008. Assessment of the results of the study by McCann et al. (2007) on the effect of some colours and sodium benzoate on children’s behaviour, Question No EFSA-Q-2007-171. EFSA Journall 660, 1.
Review article concluded that chemical causes cancer
Only in: Food
 
some
 
Sarah Kobylewski & Michael F. Jacobson. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46.
Review article concluded that chemical can cause hyperactivity in children
Only in: Food
 
some
 
Sarah Kobylewski & Michael F. Jacobson. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46.
EFSA concludes that some sensitive individuals may experience allergic reactions at dose levels within the ADI.
Only in: Food
 
some
 
European Food Safety Authority. 2009. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation Tartrazine (E 102). EFSA Journal 7(11), 1331.
A peer-reviewed study found that this substance caused neurobehavioral effects in animals at high doses.
Only in: Food
 
some
 
Toyohito Tanaka, Osamu Takahashi, Shinshi Oishi & Akio Ogata. 2008. Effects of tartrazine on exploratory behavior in a three-generation toxicity study in mice. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.) 26(2), 156-63.
A peer-reviewed study found that this substance caused neurobehavioral effects in animals at high doses.
Only in: Food
 
some
 
Toyohito Tanaka. 2006. Reproductive and neurobehavioural toxicity study of tartrazine administered to mice in the diet. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 44(2), 179-87.
A peer-reviewed study reports this substance shows estrogenic activity in a human cell line.
Only in: Food
 
some
 
Andrew Axon, Felicity E. B. May, Luke E. Gaughan, Faith M. Williams, Peter G. Blain & Matthew C. Wright. 2012. Tartrazine and sunset yellow are xenoestrogens in a new screening assay to identify modulators of human oestrogen receptor transcriptional activity. Toxicology 298(1-3), 40-51.
A review article concluded that chemical possibly caused brain and bladder tumors in rats.
Only in: Food
 
some
 
Sarah Kobylewski & Michael F. Jacobson. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46.
A review study found that cell-based screening tests suggest the potential for neurotoxicity.
Only in: Food
 
some
 
Sarah Kobylewski & Michael F. Jacobson. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46.
Ingestion of tartrazine was associated with behavioral changes in irritability, restlessness, and sleep disturbance in some children.
Only in: Food
 
some
 
K. S. Rowe & K. J. Rowe. 1994. Synthetic food coloring and behavior: a dose response effect in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures study. The Journal of pediatrics 125(5 Pt 1), 691-8.
Eating a mix of artificial colors with sodium benzoate result in increased hyperactivity in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the general population.
Only in: Food
 
some
 
Donna McCann, John O. Warner, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Emily Prince, Lucy Porteous, Kris Lok, Elizabeth Kitchin, Kate Grimshaw, Lindy Dalen, Debbie Crumpler, Alison Cooper, Angelina Barrett & Jim Stevenson. 2007. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 370(9598), 1560-7.
A peer-reviewed study found that this substance caused neurobehavioral effects in animals at high doses.
Only in: Food
 
some
 
Kamel, M.M. & El-lethey, H.S. 2011. The Potential Health Hazard of Tartrazine and Levels of Hyperactivity, Anxiety-Like Symptoms, Depression and Anti-social behaviour in Rats. Journal of American Science 7(6), 1211-8.
A review article concluded that 15% of people suffering from skin allergy reacted to Red 40 in a skin allergy test.
Only in: Food
 
some
 
Sarah Kobylewski & Michael F. Jacobson. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46.
Review article concluded that chemical caused hypersensitivity reactions.
Only in: Food
 
some
 
Sarah Kobylewski & Michael F. Jacobson. 2012. Toxicology of food dyes. International journal of occupational and environmental health 18(3), 220-46.

Impurities

Health issue
 
Level of Concern
 
Source
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Known To Be Human Carcinogen
 
some
 
NTP 12th RoC - NTP RoC
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
Known to cause cancer
 
some
 
Prop 65 - CA Proposition 65
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
May cause cancer
 
some
 
GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
Carcinogenic to humans
 
some
 
IARC 103 - IARC
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
Known To Be Human Carcinogen
 
some
 
NTP 12th RoC - NTP RoC
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Carcinogenic to humans
 
some
 
IARC 103 - IARC
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Known to cause cancer
 
some
 
Prop 65 - CA Proposition 65
Impurity: BENZIDINE
May cause cancer
 
some
 
GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
 
some
 
GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Very toxic to aquatic life
 
some
 
GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Carcinogenic to humans
 
some
 
EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) - Cancer - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Impurity: BENZIDINE
bladder cancer
 
some
 
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Basis - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Exposure by all routes should be carefully controlled to levels as low as possible
 
some
 
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Basis - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
confirmed human carcinogen
 
some
 
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Basis - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
Impurity: BENZIDINE
confirmed human carcinogen
 
some
 
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Basis - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
Impurity: BENZIDINE
cancer
 
some
 
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Basis - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
cancer
 
some
 
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Basis - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
Exposure by all routes should be carefully controlled to levels as low as possible
 
some
 
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Basis - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
liver cancer
 
some
 
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Basis - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
Impurity: BENZIDINE
Harmful if swallowed
Only in: Household Cleaners
 
some
 
GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Impurity: 4-AMINOBIPHENYL
Harmful if swallowed
Only in: Household Cleaners
 
some
 
GHS Hazard Codes - EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
 
 
About the ratings About the ratings
EWG provides information on cleaning product ingredients from the published scientific... continue reading →
EWG provides information on cleaning product ingredients from published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors that determine actual health risks, if any. (Hide)
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