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Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT)

Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT)
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Overall Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) is of higher concern in food.

The overall ingredient concern is determined by using a weight of evidence evaluation of the known safety or hazards. In calculating an overall ingredient score multiple findings of low concern may lead to an overall moderate concern rating, or multiple moderate concerns may lead to a high concern rating. For more details read EWG's ingredient concern methodology.

Specific concerns for Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT)

Concern
 
Level of Concern in Food
 
Source
The European Food Safety Authority reports that this substance can cause reproductive and developmental toxicity in animals.
 
higher
European Food Safety Authority. 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
The European Food Safety Authority reports that this substance can cause thyroid effects in animals.
 
higher
European Food Safety Authority. 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
The European Food Safety Authority reports that this substance can cause liver tumors in animals.
 
higher
European Food Safety Authority. 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
The European Food Safety Authority reports that this substance can cause birth weight effects in animals.
 
higher
European Food Safety Authority. 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
The European Food Safety Authority reports that this substance can cause lung cancer in animals.
 
moderate
European Food Safety Authority. 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
The European Food Safety Authority reports that this substance can cause hyperplasia in animals.
 
moderate
European Food Safety Authority. 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
The European Food Safety Authority reports that this substance can cause allergies in people.
 
lower
European Food Safety Authority. 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
The European Food Safety Authority reports that this substance can cause hemorrhagic effects in animals at high doses.
 
lower
European Food Safety Authority. 2012. EFSA. 2012. Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS); Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT (E 321) as a food additive. EFSA Journal 10(3), 2588.
A peer-reviewed study found this substance caused adverse developmental effects in rats.
 
lower
C. V. Vorhees, R. E. Butcher, R. L. Brunner & T. J. Sobotka. 1981. Developmental neurobehavioural toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene in rats. Food and cosmetics toxicology 19(2), 153-62.
NTP Toxcast scored 3.5-4.5
 
lower
EWG Toxcast Analysis - National Toxicology Program (NTP)
 

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